BU-216: Summary Table of Lithium-based Batteries

Learn the key feature of each Li-ion in a summary table.

The term lithium-ion points to a family of batteries that shares similarities, but the chemistries can vary greatly. Li-cobalt, Li-manganese, NMC and Li-aluminum are similar in that they deliver high capacity and are used in portable applications. Li-phosphate and Li-titanate have lower voltages and have less capacity, but are very durable. These batteries are mainly found in wheeled and stationary uses. Table 1 summarizes the characteristics of major Li-ion batteries.

Chemistry

Lithium Cobalt Oxide

Lithium Manganese Oxide

Lithium Nickel Manganese

Lithium Iron Phosphate

Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide

Lithium Titanate

Short form

Li-cobalt

Li-manganese

NMC

Li-phosphate

Li-aluminum

Li-titanate

Abbreviation

LiCoC2
(LCO)

LiMn2O4
(LMO)

LiNiMnCoO2 (NMC)

LiFePo4
(LFP)

LiNiCoAlO2 (NCA)

Li2TiO3
(LTO)

Nominal voltage

3.60V

3.70V (3.80V)

3.60V (3.70V)

3.20, 3.30V

3.60V

2.40V

Full charge

4.20V

4.20V

4.20V (or higher)

3.65V

4.20V

2.85V

Full discharge

3.00V

3.00V

3.00V

2.50V

3.00V

1.80V

Minimal voltage

2.50V

2.50V

2.50V

2.00V

2.50V

1.50V (est.)

Specific Energy

150–200Wh/kg

100–150Wh/kg

150–220Wh/kg

90–120Wh/kg

200-260Wh/kg

70–80Wh/kg

Charge rate

0.7–1C (3h)

0.7–1C (3h)

0.7–1C (3h)

1C (3h)

1C

1C (5C max)

Discharge rate

1C (1h)

1C, 10C possible

1–2C

1C (25C pule)

1C

10C possible

Cycle life (ideal)

500–1000

300–700

1000–2000

1000–2000

500

3,000–7,000

Thermal runaway

150°C (higher when empty)

250°C (higher when empty)

210°C(higher when empty)

270°C (safe at full charge)

150°C (higher when empty)

One of safest
Li-ion batteries

Maintenance

Keep cool; store partially charged; prevent full charge cycles, use moderate charge and discharge currents

Packaging (typical)

18650, prismatic and pouch cell

prismatic

18650, prismatic and pouch cell

26650, prismatic

18650

prismatic

History

1991 (Sony)

1996

2008

1996

1999

2008

Applications

Mobile phones, tablets, laptops, cameras

Power tools, medical devices, powertrains

E-bikes, medical devices, EVs, industrial

Stationary with high currents and endurance

Medical, industrial,
EV (Tesla)

UPS, EV, solar street lighting

Comments

High energy, limited power. Market share has stabilized.

High power, less capacity; safer than Li-cobalt; often mixed with NMC to improve performance.

High capacity and high power. Market share is increasing. Also NCM, CMN, MNC, MCN

Flat discharge voltage, high power low capacity, very safe; elevated self-discharge.

Highest capacity with moderate power. Similar to Li-cobalt.

Long life, fast charge, wide temperature range and safe. Low capacity, expensive.


Table 1: Summary of most common lithium-ion based batteries. Experimental and less common lithium-based batteries are not listed. Readings are estimated averages at time of publication. Detailed information on BU-205: Types of Lithium-ion.

Last updated 2016-07-21
 

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Comments

On September 5, 2016 at 1:07am
Ahsan wrote:

Hi I would like to know the suitable battery to maintain the power of 32W for an year.Can you recommend anyone from the list??The load will vary but will never be on the limits to attain maximum power from the battery.

On March 30, 2017 at 10:08am
Ben wrote:

Is this information based on a single cell? I am currently working on a paper and would like to know the potential charge and voltage per cell of the different types of batteries.

On July 24, 2017 at 11:27am
Bill Bryans wrote:

Information requested:
I want to upgrade by Class B+ Motorhome 2x 6V AGM coach batteries to a 400 Amp/hr LiFePo4 battery based system. The perspective battery manufacturer is being very vague about what their recommended minimum cold temperature points for various % charge should be to avoid damage to the battery pack that would accelerate the normal life cycle decline in charge capacity, or damage a cell to point of failure.
They do indicate these batteries can be used below 0C (just not how much below), but not to charge them when below 0C (automatic charger disconnect feature requiring manual reset).
My main concern is whether I will have to remove the battery pack during a Canadian winter when it may be in outdoor storage. The battery pack is located inside the coach so I’m not worried about cold weather when using the motor home, just while in storage. We can get winter nights down to -25C (worst case).
P.S. I appreciate the tips about not having a full charge on these batteries prior to storage in colder temps.

On August 3, 2017 at 7:56am
MR A B LAMBELLE wrote:

I have two 36v 16ah lithium batteries on my electric tricycle. 
After using the trike, I have always only re-charged one battery, thinking that the other battery would also be re-charged as the power from this second battery has been drawn from it while the first battery was being used to power the trike.
Now I have two batteries, one fully charged (but I cannot draw any power from it) the other dead, none of the LED’s lighting up.
THANK YOU!