BU-304c: Battery Safety in Public

Battery must be taken seriously, even if small. This applies especially to Li-ion.

The interest in batteries is growing, but stored energy must be respected. Children and adults alike are often unaware of the potential safety hazards when experimenting with batteries by heating cells, crushing them or applying an electrical short. Some batteries disintegrate with such a force they can cause serious harm, such as the loss of an arm or death. The damage inflicted depends on the chemistry and lithium-based cells are the most potent. Pay special attention to lithium-metal, the most energy-dense cell that is also the most powerful when stressed beyond its limits.

Folks are familiar with the alkaline, but this is the pussycat of batteries. Other systems are less forgiving and this article looks at common battery systems in the hands of the consumer. We learn how to care for batteries, what to watch for when traveling and how to stay out of trouble with correct handling.
 

Alkaline

Alkaline is the most common household battery. It provides longer runtime and is slightly more expensive than the zinc-carbon that it replaced. Lewis Urry (1927–2004) invented the alkaline in 1949 while working with the Eveready Battery Company laboratory in Ohio, USA.

A household alkaline has about 40 percent more energy than the average Li-ion. Alkaline is environmentally friendly and does not leak when depleted, as the old zinc-carbon did that came on the market in 1868. Alkaline has a very low self-discharge and can be stored for up to 10 years. It has a good safety record and can be carried on an aircraft without subject to UN Transport and other regulations.


The negative of alkaline is high internal resistance that limits current loading to light loads only, such as remote controls, flashlights and portable entertainment devices. This has an advantage in that alkaline can safely be carried in our jeans. An electrical short with keys or coins will cause the cell the heat up but there is no danger of fire. In spite of being forgiving, never mix batteries metallic objects.

Alkaline Battery

Alkaline batteries cannot be charged, or at least they should not. This does not stop individuals from trying to get some energy back into the cell. Ordinary alkaline batteries have been recharged in households for many years. Recharging is most effective if the cell is not discharged beyond 50 percent. Depth of discharge governs the number of recharges and is limited to just a few. Battery makers do not endorse this practice for safety reasons; charging ordinary alkaline batteries may generate hydrogen gas that can lead to an explosion. (See BU-211: Alternate Battery Systems; go to Reusable Alkaline).

 

Button cells

The button cell, also known as a coin cell, is used in toys, watches, hearing aids and medical devices. Children like to play with button cells, putting them in their mouth and possibly swallowing them. In the United States alone, each year more than 2,800 children are treated in emergency rooms for swallowing button batteries. According to a 2015 report, injuries and deaths from swallowing batteries has increased nine-fold in the last decade. (See BU-703: Health Concerns with Batteries)

If swallowed, the battery often gets stuck in the esophagus (the tube that passes food). Water or saliva creates a conduit for electrical current that triggers a chemical reaction producing hydroxide, a caustic ion that can cause serious burns to the surrounding tissue. Doctors often misdiagnose the revealing symptoms revealing as fever, vomiting, poor appetite and weariness. Batteries that make it through the esophagus often move through the digestive tract with little or no lasting damage, although they can ulcerate the stomach wall.

The advice to parents is to choose safe toys and to keep small batteries away from young children. Similar to pharmaceutical products, keep small batteries locked away from small children.

Button Cells


Lead acid

Lead acid produces high load current for a few seconds, causes sparks and melts metals but the battery soon gets exhausted. An analogy is a drying felt pen that works for short markings on paper and then needs resting to replenish the ink. While recovery is fast, charging is notoriously slow and gets worse with age. An electrical short can cause a spill and create exhaust gases. Do not try to short lead acid.

Lead is a toxic metal that can enter the body by inhalation of lead dust or ingestion when touching the mouth with lead-contaminated hands. Children and fetuses of pregnant women are most vulnerable to lead poisoning. Excessive levels of lead may affect a child’s growth, cause brain damage, harm kidneys, impair hearing and induce behavioral problems. In adults, lead can cause memory loss and lower the ability to concentrate, as well as harm the reproductive system. Lead is also known to induce high blood pressure, nerve disorders, and muscle and joint pain. Researchers think that Ludwig van Beethoven became ill and died because of lead poisoning.
Lead Acid Battery


Do not store starter batteries where children play as the terminals of a starter battery are made of lead. Lead acid also has one of the most corrosive electrolytes of all batteries that must be safeguarded.
 

Lithium-ion

The damage a lithium-ion cell can inflict by an accidental short comes at a surprise to most. Packaged in an 18650 cell (pictured) Li-ion looks like a harmless AA alkaline cell. Not so. When shorted, Li-ion delivers persistent current without abiding. This often leads to venting with flame, a violent self-destruction alike a rocket. Embedded safety components offer protection, but not all cells have such safeguards.

Many 18650 cells are carried as spares for vaping devices. E-cigarettes require high current to activate the heat element and only Li-ion has such a load capability. When carrying a spare, wrap battery in a plastic bag to prevent electrical short.

Because of potential danger, lithium batteries can no longer be placed in checked baggage, but must be carried onboard an aircraft. Quick access to a fire extinguisher enables putting out a fire in the cabin. Each passenger can take two spares Li-ion that do not exceed 160Wh each; 320Wh total. An 18650 rated at 3,300mAh has about 12Wh. (See BU-704a: Shipping Lithium-based Batteries by Air).
Li-ion cell


From 1991-2016, 138 airport and flight incidents involving lithium batteries occurred. These include 13 E-cigarettes, 7 mobile phones/tablets, 7 spare batteries and 4 laptops. E-cigarette incidents increased the most.

According to published reports, 68 percent of battery failure in transit is caused by short circuit, and poor packaging is much to blame. Do not store and transport bare batteries in a metal box; do not mix batteries with coins, house keys in your jeans. Always put cells and batteries in clear plastic bags.


Source: News Calgary 2017

The photo shows a pair of burned jeans in which a Li-ion cell came in contact with loose coins in the pocket. It inflicted third degree burns on the man’s leg. Little can be done to stop the flaming event once it has begun.

 

Lithium Batteries

While Li-ion is rechargeable, there are non-rechargeable lithium batteries that exceed Li-ion in capacity. They contain a metallic anode and are often called lithium-metal. This increases volatility and these batteries are subject to tighter shipping regulations than the more benign lithium-ion. Primary lithium batteries come in many varieties and are mainly used for industrial uses. (See BU-106a: Choices of Primary Batteries.)

Lithium iron disulfide (LiFeS2) is a replacement of the regular household alkaline with longer runtimes and better loading capabilities. Lithium batteries normally deliver 3 volts and higher, LiFeS2 is 1.5 volts, making it compatible with the AA and AAA formats. They cost slightly more than alkaline and must follow transportation rules.

Lithium thionyl chloride (LiSOCI2 or LTC) can withstand high heat and strong vibration. Thanks to the wide temperature operating range, LTC batteries are mainly used for horizontal drilling, also known as fracking that reaches head temperatures of 125°C (257°F). With a specific energy of over 500Wh/kg, they offer twice the capacity of the best Li-ion. Even though rugged and seemingly indestructible, this battery is one of the most potent if abused. Because of the potential danger, LTC is not permitted in consumer products; it also requires training for handling.

Lithium manganese dioxide (LiMnO2 or Li-M) is another common metallic lithium battery that is more benign than LTC. It comes with a lower capacity and is safe for public use. Typical uses are meter sensing, medical devices, road toll sensors and cameras.
 

CAUTION LTC and Li-M are safe but workers handling these batteries must be familiar with safety precautions, transportation and disposal. Protect the batteries from heat, short circuit, and physical or electrical abuses.

 

Effect of Aging

Li-ion batteries are safe but what may not be fully understood with a growing battery population is aging. Users ask: “Will my battery die quietly or depart with a bang?” Typical usage patterns that stress a Li-ion battery are excessive loading, rapid-charging and charging below freezing. Furthermore, storing Li-ion at a voltage below 2 volts per cell leads to dendrite growth that can damage the separator and cause a mild electrical short that can progress into a full electrical short, even if kept in storage. A small water leak in a faulty hydro dam can advance to a torrent and take a structure down, so also can separator damage lead to venting with flame. The temperature rises to 500°C (932°F), at which point the cell catches fire or explodes.

If a Li-ion battery overheats, hisses, or bulges, immediately move the device with battery away from flammable materials and place it on a non-combustible surface. If at all possible, remove the battery from the device and put it outdoors to burn out.

A small Li-ion fire can be handled like any other combustible fire. For best result use a foam extinguisher, CO2, ABC dry chemical, powdered graphite, copper powder or soda (sodium carbonate). If the fire occurs in an airplane cabin, the FAA instructs flight attendants to use water or soda pop. Water-based products are most readily available and are appropriate since Li-ion contains very little lithium metal that could react with water. Water also cools the adjacent area and prevents the fire from spreading. (See BU-304a: Safety Concerns with Li-ion).

A large Li-ion fire, such as in an EV, may need to burn out as water is ineffective. When encountering a fire with a lithium-metal battery, only use a Class D fire extinguisher. Lithium-metal contains of lithium that reacts with water and makes the fire worse. Do not use the Class D fire extinguisher for regular fires.


Last updated 2017-08-21
 


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Comments

On September 11, 2017 at 1:14am
Ernest Woo wrote:

Hello, I was traveling through China with a pair of ‘’ electric wheelchair batteries ‘’ that were not marked the voltage on the outside battery casing so they confiscated both batteries explaining that it was a hazard. My question is there by law that all batteries must show what the power output is. If there is a law you can point me in the direction for it. Many thanks, Ernie Woo

On September 19, 2017 at 8:19am
paul delucia wrote:

This article asserts that alkaline batteries can be short circuited but advises against it.  I agree.  On what is this assertion based?  Is there a standard these batteries must meet that requires this?  I don’t want to short circuit anything, but I’d like to exceed 1A in a AA Alkaline battery for short times.  Is there any objective standard that states the batteries will be safe beyond 1A?  1A is the highest discharge rate in the performance graphs; this must come with some margin.  So it’s likely a higher rate is safe, but for the life of me I can’t find any standard or official guideline that I can point to to prove my design will be safe.  Any pointers?  Thanks in advance.