Disclaimer and Copyright


Permission to Publish

BatteryUniversity provides the content free of charge for educational purposes. The material is the copyright ©2003 – 2018 of Cadex Electronics Inc. (Cadex). You may use extracts of the information but only if, in each instance, you prominently identify the material you plan to copy and explain in what application it will be used by contacting us through email. The Battery University content cannot be sold for profit.

Permission to use as Teaching Material

Battery University offers open articles for the purpose of battery education. Teaching organizations and academia may use a limited quantity of material for the sole purpose of teaching. The content may be rewritten or translated into different languages without losing accuracy. The reproduction of such text must be limited to the class environment and restricted to the subject matter discussed with clear reference of the source given.


Information Source

The information published in Battery University is compiled from manufacturer’s specifications and independent test laboratories as well as crowd sourcing. Rather than citing research papers, Battery University may choose average readings when appropriate as lab results are not always repeatable in real life. This differs from scientific papers that are published by academia and research laboratories for the benefit of scientists. Battery University reflects typical battery behavior in the care of the common user.



Copyright ©2003 - 2018 Cadex Electronics Inc. (Cadex). All rights are reserved. No part of this publication may be reproduced, transmitted, transcribed, stored in a retrieval system or translated into any language or computer language in any form or by any means without written permission of Cadex Electronics Inc., 22000 Fraserwood Way, Richmond, British Columbia, Canada, V6W 1J6  Phone: +1 604 231-7777, Fax: +1 604 231-7755, e-mail: isidor.buchmann@cadex.com.


While every effort was made to ensure that the information contained in this publication is accurate, Cadex does not warrant or guarantee the accuracy and completeness of the information published herein; neither does Cadex take responsibility for any errors, omission or damages arising from this information. The graphs and tables included are for illustration of typical battery applications and are not intended as constructional information to solve engineering issues.


This website may contain forward-looking statements and mention products Cadex products as a suggested solution. All trademarks used in conjunction with ‘Cadex’ are the property of Cadex Electronics Inc.

Link Partnership

We receive many requests to link www.BatteryUniveristy.com to various commercial websites. Please be advised that it is our policy not to add links to other commercial websites because our site is provided for educational purposes only. However, feel free to add any links to the content on our site.


Last updated 2018-05-30


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