BU-003: Dedication

The information in this book is provided for the benefit of all battery users. Batteries have become our steady travel companion. They help us reach a friend, allow us to work outside the confines of four walls, offer entertainment when time permits and enable personal transportation. But most importantly, batteries connect humanity and support missions that help people in need.

I dedicate this book to my five children and many grandchildren, who have a keen interest in batteries. They understand the importance of clean power to maintain freedom of mobility while protecting our environment and reducing the dependence on fossil fuel. They also want to pass our wonderful world to future generations as God’s gift to us, well-sustained and unspoiled by mankind.

With Special Thanks

The author of BatteryUniversity.com, Isidor Buchmann, thanks Cadex Electronics for sponsoring this website. The Cadex staff has been most supportive in providing discoveries from their laboratories and sharing material that is of interest to battery users. Special attention goes to advancements in battery management and diagnostic technologies, as well as developments in rapid-testing.

Jeff Dahn | Professor of Physics and Chemistry, Dalhousie University

DAHN is recognized worldwide as a distinguished scientist in the field of advanced lithium batteries. He is one of the pioneering developers of the lithium-ion battery, has authored 610 refereed journal papers and has issued or filed 65 patented inventions. According to the Electrochemical Society Interface, Dahn is one of the most prolific authors in the Journal of the Electrochemical Society and has one of the most-cited papers in the journal. 

Dahn obtained his B.Sc. in physics from Dalhousie University (1978) and earned his Ph.D. from the University of British Columbia in 1982. He then worked at the National Research Council (NRC) of Canada (1982–85) and at Moli Energy Limited (1985–1990) before taking up a faculty position in the Physics Department at Simon Fraser University in 1990. He joined Dalhousie University in 1996 as the NSERC/3M Canada Industrial Research Chair in Materials for Advanced Batteries and was appointed Canada Research Chair in 2003.

Dahn has received numerous national and international awards, including the Herzberg Medal, Canadian Association of Physicists; Battery Division Research Award of the Electrochemical Society (1996) and the Battery Division Technology Award (2011); NSERC University/Industry Synergy Award for collaborative efforts with 3M Canada (2003) and the Medal for Excellence in Teaching from the Canadian Association of Physicists. In 2015, Dahn entered an exclusive agreement with Tesla Motors for a five-year partnership beginning in June 2016.

Paul Craig | Director of Technology at E-One Moli Energy (Canada) Ltd.

CRAIG began his battery career in 1986 in the R&D department at Moli Energy, where he designed equipment for manufacturing and testing of rechargeable lithium batteries. As Senior Applications Engineer, he developed fuel gauges for smart batteries and was responsible for specifying and approving batteries for military, medical and commercial use. In his position as Director of Technology he is a key interface between the battery industry and the R&D department. Craig travels the world and devotes equal time to batteries for portable applications and the electric vehicle. He provided invaluable resources for this book, especially on manganese-based chemistries and user applications.

Jörn Tinnemeyer | Senior Director Energy Storage Systems, Teco Group

TINNEMEYER has contributed to this book on the electrical, chemical and implicational side of the battery. He has won many prestigious awards, honors and international research scholarships, but his main achievements are battery rapid-test technologies to estimate state-of-health that secured five patents. Today, these innovations are in commercial use and are known as Spectro™ and QuickSort™. Tinnemeyer holds a degree from the University of Toronto in mathematics and applied physics, completed graduate work in high-energy physics at Simon Fraser University and earned a master’s degree in astronautics and space engineering at Cranfield University in the UK.

Tina Shoa | Ph.D., Senior Research Engineer, Cadex Electronics Inc.

SHOA received her Ph.D. in electrical engineering from the University of British Columbia (UBC) in the field of modeling and characterization of electrochemical systems. She contributed to multi-dimensional modeling for energy storage systems including batteries, fuel cells and polymer actuators and sensors. She has won prestigious awards in the area of applied electrochemical systems, received the NSREC industrial postdoctoral fellowship and completed the postdoctoral program at Automotive Fuel Cell Cooperation (AFCC) as a research scientist. Shoa has authored a book chapter and 15 peer-reviewed articles in the areas of electro-chemical devices, served on the Graduate Advisory Board at UBC and supervised graduate students in conducting research in energy storage systems. With her research team, Shoa is studying new products in battery management and diagnostics, including battery rapid-testing.

David Conn | Professor Emeritus of Electrical and Computer Engineering, McMaster University.

CONN received his Ph.D. degree from Queen’s University (1970) in the field of Microwave Device Modelling where he introduced the concepts of State-Space-Analysis to the microwave community. This technique allows the combination of circuit and device modeling into one unified method of studying microwave systems.

He conducted research and development in academia and played a significant role in developing microwave solid state circuits while working in the digital radio department of Bell-Northern Research. His research spanned the areas from circuit applications to opto-electronic measurement systems. He was later appointed an NSERC Research Chair at McMaster University where he became Chair of the Electrical and Computer Engineering Department and an Associate Member of the Engineering Physics Department.


The author also thanks Bill Campbell, John Bradshaw, David Conn and Deborah Hutton for their dedicated editing and proofreading efforts. Special thanks go to Ljuba Levstek for the line drawings in Chapter 1. No one is able to complete an informational website single-handedly. In the end, it’s the teamwork that adds quality and provides completeness.

Last updated 2016-04-11

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Batteries as Power Source


On January 13, 2016 at 11:06pm
Thinn Thinn Hlaing wrote:

For common use in teaching.

On March 25, 2016 at 8:18am
Rosea Webs wrote:

Battery is most of the important part if you think about any electric device which run through battery.
Just like tactical flashlight.I love AA battery besttacticalflashlights.org/best-aa-flashlight-batteries

But few people love big battery. For this reason they need to use AAA battery.

It’s totally vary which battery you need to use.

On August 24, 2016 at 2:35am
david bradbury wrote:

Thanks for all your news and info, most interesting, but can we not go further, i have experimented for years with diff electrolytes and electrodes, i have found it to be a bit simple to get results that are most interesting say the least, how about giving somme experiments that readers can perform

david bradbury

On November 30, 2016 at 7:19am
Andrea wrote:

Where can I find the book?

On November 30, 2016 at 11:10am
Cadex Electronics Inc. wrote: