BU-704: How to Transport Batteries

Know the hazardous material rules and lithium content when carrying batteries.

Many battery types fall under strict transportation regulation. This is done for the safety of those handling them and the passengers traveling on a common carrier. Here are the rules in short.

Lead Acid

Most countries set strict rules for transporting lead acid batteries. Failure to comply with the regulations is a civil or criminal offense that can bring a stiff penalty on the carrier and/or shipper. The transport regulations require the following precautions.

Different rules apply when shipping damaged batteries. A lead acid battery is considered damaged if there is a possibility of leakage due to a crack, or if one or more caps are missing. Transportation companies and air carriers may require that the batteries be drained of all acid prior to transport. Place damaged batteries in an acid-resistant container and add soda ash to neutralize any acid that might spill. Separate damaged and intact batteries.

Nickel-based Batteries

Nickel-based batteries have no transport limitations, however, some of the same precautions apply as for lead acid in terms of packaging to prevent electrical shorts and safeguard against fire. Regulations prohibit storing and transporting smaller battery packs in a metal box. If there is a danger of an electrical short, wrap each battery individually in a plastic bag. When carrying small batteries in your pocket, do not mix them with coins and house keys.

Lithium-based Batteries

In 2009, 3.3 billion Li-ion batteries were transported by air. Such air shipment is an ongoing concern, and an airline-pilot union has asked the Federal Aviation Administration (FAA) to ban them on passenger aircraft. From March 1991 to August 2010, batteries and battery-powered devices caused 113 recorded incidents with smoke, fire, extreme heat or explosion on passenger and cargo planes. The Portable Rechargeable Battery Association (PRBA) is aware of possible hazards and opposes any revisions in transportation rules, arguing that the restrictions would cost shippers and manufacturers billions of dollars.

PRBA is made up of major battery manufacturers, including Energizer, Panasonic, SAFT America, Sanyo and Varta Batteries. These manufacturers do not want to disrupt air shipments, especially batteries for critical medical and military missions. They argue that the batteries causing problems do not meet US hazardous material handling regulations and ask the FAA to enforce stricter manufacturing rules. The manufacturers tell the aviation industry further that, as a result of the well-publicized 2006 recall, a safer generation of Li-ion batteries has emerged. According to U.S. Census Bureau (2010), airfreight transports roughly 364 million cell phones, 142 million cameras and 47 million laptops as part of just-in-time delivery to stores. No deaths and only 26 injuries are attributed to shipping billions of lithium batteries every year.

The estimated failure rate of Li-ion is one per 10 million. Examining the 113 recorded incidents of transporting batteries by air in 19 years reveals that most failures occurred due to inappropriate packaging or handling, which caused damage or electrical short. Most incidents happened at airports or in cargo hubs. Problem batteries include primary lithium (lithium-metal), lead, nickel and alkaline systems, and not just lithium-ion, as is perceived. Newer consumer products have very few surprise failures caused by Li-ion batteries.

There are, however, restrictions with lithium-ion batteries on airplanes and travelers are reminded how many batteries can be carried on board in portable devices and as spare packs. Since January 2008, people can no longer pack spare lithium batteries in checked baggage, but airlines allow them as carry-on. The passenger compartment enables better safety monitoring with access to fire extinguishers. In one incident, a coffee pot served as extinguishing device for a flaming laptop battery on board of a plane. This would be impossible in the cargo bay below. 

In terms of transportation, lithium-based batteries are divided into non-rechargeablelithium-metal batteries that are typically used in film cameras, and the rechargeable lithium-ion battery found in cell phones and laptops. Airlines allow both types as carry-on either installed or carried as spare packs as long as they don’t exceed the following limitation of lithium or equivalent of:

The lithium content of the primary lithium batteries is often printed on the label. Li-ion, on the other hand, has no metallic lithium and uses the equivalent lithium content (ELC) instead. To calculate the ELC, multiply the rated capacity (Ah) times 0.3. As an example, a 1Ah cell has 0.3 grams of lithium. The 8-gram ELC limitation allows a 100Wh battery.

A laptop battery commonly uses 2Ah cells containing 0.6 grams of ELC each. The battery pack may have eight cells (4 in series; 2 in parallel), which brings the ELC to 4.8 grams, well below the 8-gram limit allowed by a single pack. To derive the watt-hour, multiply the battery voltage by the ampere-hours (Ah). The battery in question has a voltage of 14.40V (4 x 3.6V) and a rating of 4Ah (2 x 2A). In summary, 14.4 x 4 = 57.6Ah, or roughly 60Wh.

While regulations limit the Li-ion battery to no larger than 100Wh, each passenger and travel companion is allowed to carry spare packs of up to 25 grams of ELC, or 300Wh. The airlines recommend placing each battery in a clear plastic bag or covering the contacts with a tape to prevent an electric short. Although current rules forbid passengers from carrying lithium-ion batteries in checked luggage, devices with non-removable batteries, such as the iPhone, iPad and certain brand of laptops, are exempt from the rules.

 Anyone shipping lithium-ion batteries in bulk must meet transportation regulations and this applies to domestic and international shipments by land, sea and air. (More in BU-704a) Lithium-ion cells whose equivalent lithium content exceeds 1.5 grams or 8 grams per battery pack (100Wh) must be shipped as “Class 9 miscellaneous hazardous material.” Film crew often carry larger batteries for professional video cameras, and these are handled as hazardous material. If a shipment in the US contains more than 24 lithium cells or 12 lithium-ion packs, special markings and appropriate shipping documents are required. Each package must be clearly marked to inform the airline that lithium batteries are involved. Open cells and packs must be separated to prevent electrical short. The packages must be strong to allow stacking.

Frequently Asked Questions about Transporting Lithium Ion Batteries by Air

No. Almost all small Li-ion (less than 100Wh) in consumer products are except from dangerous goods regulations and do not require Class 9 labeling, marking or packaging.

Lithium ion batteries can be shipped in small and large quantities. A single package may contain as few as five batteries, while a pallet may contain more than 1,000 packs.

In the US, the marking is mandatory for packages of more than 24 Li-ion cells or 12 Li-ion packs. The documents identify the goods and tell what to do if the package is damaged.

Yes, all Li-ion cells and packs shipped internationally must be tested. In the US, UN testing also includes small, consumer-size lithium ion cells and packs. Read about [BU-305 Building a Lithium-ion Pack]

To assure lithium-based batteries are designed and packaged to withstand transportation conditions, the US Department of Transportation (DOT) proposes new regulations. While the Airline Pilots Association supports tighter restrictions and has called for lithium batteries to be “fully regulated dangerous goods” as airline cargo, PRBA recommends dropping the proposed rules in favor of the International Civil Aviation Organization requirement (ICAO), which has been in effect since 2009 but was never applied in the US. Industry lobbyists say that the government has enough rules to ensure safe battery shipments and express concern that some shippers do not follow packaging requirements. They recommend stronger enforcements there.

Moving forward, the International Air Transport Association (IATA) and Dangerous Goods Regulation (DGR) have become trusted sources to help prepare and document dangerous shipments. Recognized by the world’s airlines for over 50 years, the DGR manual is the global reference for shipping dangerous goods by air. Please also see: http://www.iata.org/publications/dgr/Pages/index.aspx

 

Comments

On May 16, 2012 at 4:21am
Walter van Praag wrote:

I was wondering how to estimate the Estimated Lithium Content (ELC) of Lithium Polymer batteries.

I am hoping to fly with a 36V 10Ahr Lithium Polymer battery which if it was a Li-Ion battery would be 28.8gms of ELC, over the allowed limit by 3.8grms! With the Lithium Polymer batteries being more efficient I assume we get more power from less ELC and perhaps the ELC of my battery is under 25grms!

There are four of us travelling for www.coughing4cf.com, a 5000km charitable electric-assisted bicycle ride for Cystic Fibrosis from Vietnam to Singapore.

Help!

On June 19, 2012 at 2:14am
Brendon Franklin wrote:

Thanks for helpful guideline. I think for battery transport associates are finding this entry beneficial for them.

On October 16, 2012 at 6:22pm
Tim wrote:

Hi,

I am about to start importing Lithium battery powered products from China and have been trying to find information about how much charge will be lost between the factory and here. However, I can only seem to find articles to do with the dange of transporting batteries.

Are you able to help me with how much Lithium battery charge I can expect to be lost during both air and sea freight, assuming it is fully charged when it leaves the factory?

Thank you for your help.

Kind regards,
Tim

On January 18, 2013 at 3:28am
Anonymous wrote:

Li-Ion cells lose about 1 - 5 % of their charge per month.
Manufacturers ship them at 40% charge, because that’s the level where they age least. You won’t get fully charged cells from China, as this makes no sense.

On June 10, 2013 at 12:35am
Brian S wrote:

There is no elemental lithium in a lithium battery. The lithium salts used in lithium batteries are not particularly dangerous. One of them is actually also used as a prescription drug. The key to lithium batterys’ success is two-fold: higher voltage/cell and high-density cells.

Since lithium salts are used, unaltered from the mining process (except drying), it is the in the form of the most ultra-fine granular particules that can be rolled in many microscopically thin layers to form a very high-capacity battery!

The danger is not from the lithium. It’s from the battery’s ability to store energy as an extremely dense electric charge and potential. The danger of lithium batteries should therefore always pertain to electrical, not chemical, charateristics!

Whereas, sulfuric acid can instantaneously blind a person, and lead-acid batteries do periodically do that to people, lithium batteries cause fires that are the direct result the stored energy in them. The mass of the lithium is practically irrelevant. One tiny battery can start a big fire!

On June 29, 2013 at 8:27am
Helenjerry wrote:

When people think of automobiles they often think of a vehicle that can transport itself. If an automobile needs to be moved form one point to another, most people would assume that someone would drive the car to the place it needed to be. While this is the case in most situations, sometimes auto shipping services need to be used to transport vehicles. While some people may scoff at these services, there are actually many benefits to using auto shipping services to transport a car.

On July 16, 2013 at 3:49pm
Tim wrote:

Can anyone point out in the transport regulations where batteries are exempt when they are non-removable (e.g. ipad) !?!?

Thanks!

On October 7, 2013 at 1:10am
brad nicholson wrote:

safety precaution of transporting of Dangerous goods must be process properly, thanks for sharing it, that’s why we DG Air, https://dgair.com.au/ we follow steps of safety first.

On October 7, 2013 at 4:41am
Maria wrote:

Hello,

Has anybody know what is the ideal Temperature to transport Li-Bat (by air).

I have found the ideal storage temperature, but I also need this info..

Tks!!

On December 5, 2013 at 9:11am
vivek kumar yadav wrote:

Hi I am planing shift from varanshi to Mumbai I having a inverter battery which is around 24 I want to parcel throw Indian railways is it possible

On April 21, 2014 at 6:44pm
Steve Gothard wrote:

It seems stupid to put 200 Kg of Lithium batteries in bulk on a wooden pallet that is made of cheap wood and nails and ship them on board an aircraft like they did on MH 370 If the pallet collapses a nail from the pallet could easily puncture a cell and start a fire.  Lithium batteris in bulk should only be shipped on a plastic pallet with padding to dampen the vibration and change in G-forces while manuvering the aircraft.

On July 17, 2014 at 4:07am
Nicola Bissett wrote:

Can any tell me or point me to the regulations for shipping lithium batteries in bulk by sea and road freight?  most of the restrictions appear to be about the air freight of goods but not sea.  i remember reading that although the regulations are issed for air freight that imminently they will be issued for sea freight as well

On August 3, 2014 at 9:57am
kondal goud M wrote:

we have purchased Byte 3 Battery tester from Megger.
The catelouge always refers measurement of impedance with base values.
Is base value to betaken as average impedance of most cells or is it defined as per AH of battery. When we measured it was 200mohms for 400 ah battery of 2v. so is the basevalue of 400ah battery 200 mohms?

On September 1, 2014 at 11:56pm
Murali wrote:

I want to transport Nickel cadmium Aviation battery, by Air.  The battery doesnot contain acid.  I want to know the UN No.  and ID No and Packing class. could any one help me

On September 5, 2014 at 12:28pm
JBL wrote:

It looks as though there is no UN number for NiCd batteries.  See US D.O.T. Title 49, Subtitle B, Chapter I, Subchapter C, Part 172, Subpart B, Section 172.101 for a table including UN Numbers:

http://www.ecfr.gov/cgi-bin/text-idx?SID=555d33b5716e15d5bfdc728fdb059f80&node=49:2.1.1.3.9.2.25.1&rgn=div8

Borrowing from a Sanyo NiCd material safety data sheet:

SANYO sealed Nickel Cadmium batteries are considered to be “dry cell” batteries and not subject to hazardous materials (dangerous goods) regulations for the purpose of transportation by the U.S. Department of Transportation (DOT), the International Civil Aviation Organization (ICAO), the International Air Transport Association (IATA) or the International Maritime Organization (IMO).

The only DOT requirement for shipping Nickel Cadmium batteries are contained in Special Provision 130 which states, “Batteries, dry” are not subject to the requirements of this subchapter when they are securely packaged and offered for transportation in a manner that prevents the dangerous evolution of heat (for example, by the effective insulation of exposed terminals) and protects against short circuits.”

A similar requirement is contained in 49 CFR 173.21(c) of the U.S. DOT hazardous materials regulations.
The IATA Dangerous Goods Regulations contain a similar requirement in Special Provision A123 that states,
“This entries applies to Batteries, electric storage, not otherwise listed in Subsection 4.2 – List of Dangerous Goods. Examples of such batteries are alkali-manganese, zinc-carbon, nickel-metal hydride, and nickel cadmium batteries. Any electrical battery or battery powered device having the potential of dangerous evolution of heat that is not prepared so as to prevent a short-circuit (e.g. in the case of batteries, by the
effective insulation of exposed terminals; or, in the case of equipment, by disconnection of the battery and protection of exposed terminals) is forbidden from transport.”

Failure to comply with these requirements may result in substantial civil penalties.

On September 16, 2014 at 3:14pm
Kathryn Lofton wrote:

Want to ship package weighing under 4 pounds by Flrst Class International Airmail USPS to India. Would like to include four 1.5 volt LR44 alkaline button batteries. Have reviewed USPS site regarding conditions for mailing to India as well as UPS shipping guidelines. So far unable to find any specific prohibition. Would place original package in ziplock plastic bag inside recyclable bubble plastic mailer with other approved items. Anyone able to site approval or prohibition for this?

On September 17, 2014 at 8:59am
Adam T wrote:

Has there been any findings/studies in to if fully discharged Lithium batteries (either installed in equipment or as bulk cargo etc) have been found to be more dangerous than fully charged ones when carried for Air Transport?