BU-205: Types of Lithium-ion

Become familiar with the many different types of lithium-ion batteries.

Lithium-ion is named after their active material, written in full or specified by their chemical symbols. A series of letters and numbers strung together can be hard to pronounce and remember and battery chemistries are also given in abbreviated letters. 

For example, lithium cobalt oxide, one of the most common Li-ion, has the chemical symbols of LiCoO2 and abbreviation LCO. For reason of simplicity, a short form as been assigned to a chemistry which for this battery is Li-cobalt. Cobalt is the main active material that gives this battery character.

This section summarizes six of the most common Li-ion: Lithium Cobalt Oxide (LiCoO2), Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4), Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC), Lithium Iron Phosphate (LiFePO4), Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (LiNiCoAlO2), and Lithium Titanate. (Li4Ti5O12). All readings are average estimates at time of writing.

Lithium Cobalt Oxide(LiCoO2)

Its high specific energy makes Li-cobalt the popular choice for cell phones, laptops and digital cameras. The battery consists of a cobalt oxide cathode and a graphite carbon anode. The cathode has a layered structure and during discharge, lithium ions move from the anode to the cathode. The flow reverses on charge. The drawback of Li-cobalt is a relatively short life span, low thermal stability and limited load capabilities (specific power). Figure 1 illustrates the structure.

Li-cobalt structure

Figure 1: Li-cobalt structure

The cathode has a layered structure. During discharge the lithium ions move from the anode to the cathode; on charge the flow is from cathode to anode.

Courtesy of Cadex

Li-cobalt cannot be charged and discharged at a current higher than its rating. This means that an 18650 cell with 2,400mAh can only be charged and discharged at 2,400mA. Forcing a fast charge or applying a load higher than 2,400mA causes overheating and undue stress. For optimal fast charge, the manufacturer recommends a C-rate of 0.8C or 1920mA. See BU-402: What is C-rate). The mandatory battery protection circuit limits the charge and discharge rate to a safe level of about 1C.

The hexagonal spider graphic (Figure 2) summarizes the performance of Li-cobalt in terms of specific energy or capacity that relates to runtime; specific power or the ability to deliver high current; safety; performance at hot and cold temperatures; life span reflecting cycle life and longevity; and cost. Other characteristics of interest not shown in the spider webs are toxicity, fast-charge capabilities, self-discharge and shelf life.

Snapshot of an average Li-cobalt battery

Figure 2: Snapshot of an average Li-cobalt battery

Li-cobalt excels on high specific energy but offers only moderate performance specific power, safety and life span.

Courtesy of Cadex

Summary Table

Lithium Cobalt Oxide: LiCoO2 cathode (~60% Co), graphite anode                                      
Short form: LCO or Li-cobalt.                                                                                                             Since 1991
Voltage, nominal 3.60V
Specific energy (capacity) 150–200Wh/kg. Specialty cells provide up to 240Wh/kg.
Charge (C-rate) 0.7–1C, charges to 4.20V (most cells); 3h charge typical. Charge current above 1C shortens battery life.
Discharge (C-rate) 1C; 2.50V cut off. Discharge current above 1C shortens battery life.
Cycle life 500–1000, related to depth of discharge, load, temperature
Thermal runaway 150°C (302°F). Full charge promotes thermal runaway
Applications Mobile phones, tablets, laptops, cameras
Comments Very high specific energy, limited specific power. Cobalt is expensive. Serves as Energy Cell. Market share has stabilized.

Table 3: Characteristics of Lithium Cobalt Oxide

Lithium Manganese Oxide (LiMn2O4)

Li-ion with manganese spinel was first published in the Materials Research Bulletin in 1983. In 1996, Moli Energy commercialized a Li-ion cell with lithium manganese oxide as cathode material. The architecture forms a three-dimensional spinel structure that improves ion flow on the electrode, which results in lower internal resistance and improved current handling. A further advantage of spinel is high thermal stability and enhanced safety, but the cycle and calendar life are limited.

Low internal cell resistance promotes fast charging and high-current discharging. In an 18650 package, Li-manganese can be discharged at currents of 20–30A with moderate heat buildup. It is also possible to apply one-second load pulses of up to 50A. A continuous high load at this current would cause heat buildup and the cell temperature cannot exceed 80C (176F). Li-manganese is used for power tools, medical instruments, as well as hybrid and electric vehicles.

Figure 4 shows the crystalline formation of the cathode in a three-dimensional framework. This spinel structure, which is usually composed of diamond shapes connected into a lattice, appears after initial formation.

Li-manganese structure

Figure 4: Li-manganese structure

The cathode crystalline formation of lithium manganese oxide has a three-dimensional framework structure that appears after initial formation. Spinel provides low resistance but has a more moderate specific energy than cobalt. 

Courtesy of Cadex

Li-manganese has a capacity that is roughly one-third lower than Li-cobalt. Design flexibility allows engineers to maximize the battery for either optimal longevity (life span), maximum load current (specific power) or high capacity (specific energy). For example, the long-life version in the 18650 cell has a moderate capacity of 1,100mAh; the high-capacity version is 1,500mAh.

Figure 5 shows the spider web of a typical Li-manganese battery. The characteristics appear marginal but newer designs have improved in terms of specific power, safety and life span.

Snapshot of a typical Li-manganese battery

Figure 5: Snapshot of a pure Li-manganese battery

Most modern manganese-based Li-ion systems include a blend of nickel and cobalt. Typical designations are LMO/NMC for lithium manages oxide/nickel-manganese-cobalt.

Courtesy of BCG research

Most Li-manganese batteries “partner” with Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC) to improve the specific energy and prolong the life span. This combination brings out the best in each system and the so-called LMO (NMC) is chosen for most electric vehicles, such as the Nissan Leaf, Chevy Volt and BMW i3. The LMO part of the battery, which is about 30 percent on the Chevy Volt, provides high current boost on acceleration, the NMC part gives the long driving range.

Summary Table

Lithium Manganese Oxide: LiMn2O4 cathode. graphite anode                                                              
Short form: LMO or Li-manganese (spinel structure)                                                                    Since 1996
Voltage, nominal 3.70V (some may be rated 3.80V)
Specific energy (capacity) 100–150Wh/kg
Charge (C-rate) 0.7–1C typical, 3C maximum, charges to 4.20V (most cells)
Discharge (C-rate) 1C; 10C possible with some cells, 30C pulse (5s), 2.50V cut-off
Cycle life 300–700 (related to depth of discharge, temperature)
Thermal runaway 250°C (482°F) typical. High charge promotes thermal runaway
Applications Power tools, medical devices, electric powertrains
Comments High power but less capacity; safer than Li-cobalt; commonly mixed with NMC to improve performance.

Table 6: Characteristics of Lithium Manganese Oxide


Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (LiNiMnCoO2 or NMC)

Leading battery manufacturers focus on a cathode combination of nickel-manganese-cobalt (NMC). Similar to Li-manganese, these systems can be tailored to serve as Energy Cells or Power Cells. For example, NMC in an 18650 cell for moderate load condition has a capacity of about 2,800mAh and can deliver 4–5A; NMC in the same cell optimized for specific power has a capacity of only about 2,000mWh but delivers a continuous discharge current of 20A. A silicon-based anode will go to 4,000mAh but at reduced loading capability and shorter cycle life.

The secret of NMC lies in combining nickel and manganese. An analogy of this is table salt in which the main ingredients sodium and chloride are toxic on their own but mixing them serves as seasoning salt and food preserver. Nickel is known for its high specific energy but poor stability; manganese has the benefit of forming a spinel structure to achieve low internal resistance but offers a low specific energy. Combining the metals enhances each other strengths.

NMC is the battery of choice for power tools, e-bikes and other electric powertrains. The cathode combination is typically one-third nickel, one-third manganese and one-third cobalt. This offers a unique blend that also lowers the raw material cost due to reduced cobalt content. Other combinations, such as NCM, CMN, CNM, MNC and MCN are also offered in which the metal content of the cathode deviates from the 1/3-1/3-1/3 formula. Manufacturers keep the ratio a well-guarded secret. Figure 7 demonstrates the characteristics of the NMC.

Snapshot of NMC

Figure 7: Snapshot of NMC

NMC has good overall performance and excels on specific energy. This battery is the preferred candidate for the electric vehicle and has the lowest self-heating rate.

Courtesy of BCG research

Summary Table

Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide: LiNiMnCoO2. cathode, graphite anode             Since 2008
Short form: NMC (NCM, CMN, CNM, MNC, MCN similar with different metal combinations)
Voltage, nominal 3.60V, 3.70V
Specific energy (capacity) 150–220Wh/kg
Charge (C-rate) 0.7–1C, charges to 4.20V, some go to 4.30V; 3h charge typical. Charge current above 1C shortens battery life.
Discharge (C-rate) 1C; 2C possible on some cells; 2.50V cut-off
Cycle life 1000–2000 (related to depth of discharge, temperature)
Thermal runaway 210°C (410°F) typical. High charge promotes thermal runaway
Applications E-bikes, medical devices, EVs, industrial
Comments Provides high capacity and high power. Serves as Hybrid Cell. Favorite chemistry for many uses; market share is increasing.

Table 8: Characteristics of Lithium Nickel Manganese Cobalt Oxide (NMC)


Lithium Iron Phosphate(LiFePO4)

In 1996, the University of Texas (and other contributors) discovered phosphate as cathode material for rechargeable lithium batteries. Li-phosphate offers good electrochemical performance with low resistance. This is made possible with nano-scale phosphate cathode material. The key benefits are high current rating and long cycle life, besides good thermal stability, enhanced safety and tolerance if abused.

Li-phosphate is more tolerant to full charge conditions and is less stressed than other lithium-ion systems if kept at high voltage for a pronged time. (See BU-808: How to Prolong Lithium-based Batteries). As trade-off, the lower voltage of 3.2V/cell reduces the specific energy to less than Li-manganese. As with most batteries, cold temperature reduces performance and elevated storage temperature shortens the service life, and Li-phosphate is no exception. Li-phosphate has a higher self-discharge than other Li-ion batteries, which can cause balancing issues with aging. Figure 9 summarizes the attributes of Li-phosphate.

Li-phosphate is often used to replace the lead acid starter battery. Four cells in series produce 12.80V, a similar voltage to six 2V lead acid cells in series. Vehicles charge lead acid to 14.40V (2.40V/cell). With four Li-phosphate cells in series, each tops at 3.60V, which is the correct full-charge voltage. At this point, the charge should be disconnected but Li-phosphate is tolerant to some overcharge, however keeping the voltage at 14.40V for a prolonged time, as most vehicle do on a long drive, could stress Li-phosphate. Cold temperature operation could also be an issue with Li-phosphate as starter battery.

Snapshot of a typical Li-phosphate battery

Figure 9: Snapshot of a typical Li-phosphate battery

Li-phosphate has excellent safety and long life span but moderate specific energy and a lower voltage than other lithium-based batteries. LFP also has higher self-discharge compared to other lithium-ion systems.

Courtesy of Cadex

Summary Table

Lithium Iron Phosphate: LiFePO4 cathode, graphite anode                                                   
Short form: LFP or Li-phosphate                                                                                                       Since 1996
Voltage, nominal 3.20V, 3.30V
Specific energy (capacity) 90–120Wh/kg
Charge (C-rate) 1C typical, charges to 3.65V; 3h charge time typical
Discharge (C-rate) 1C, 25C on some cells; 40A pulse (2s); 2.50V cut-off (lower that 2V causes damage)
Cycle life 1000–2000 (related to depth of discharge, temperature)
Thermal runaway 270°C (518°F) Very safe battery even if fully charged
Applications Portable and stationary needing high load currents and endurance
Comments Very flat voltage discharge curve but low capacity. One of safest
Li-Ions. Used for special markets. Elevated self-discharge.

Table 10: Characteristics of Lithium Iron Phosphate

Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide (LiNiCoAlO2)

Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide battery, or NCA, has been around since 1999 for special application and shares similarity with NMC by offering high specific energy and reasonably good specific power and a long life span. These attribute made Elon Musk choose NCA for the Tesla EV’s. Less flattering are safety and cost. Figure 11 summarizes the six key characteristics. NCA is a further development of lithium nickel oxide; adding aluminum gives the chemistry greater stability.

Snapshot of NCA

Figure 11: Snapshot of NCA

High energy and power densities, as well as good life span, make the NCA a candidate for EV powertrains. High cost and marginal safety are negatives.

Courtesy of Cadex

Summary Table

Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide: LiNiCoAlO2 cathode (~9% Co), graphite anode               
Short form: NCA or Li-aluminum.                                                                                                      Since 1999
Voltage, nominal 3.60V
Specific energy (capacity) 200-260Wh/kg; 300Wh/kg predictable
Charge (C-rate) 0.7C, charges to 4.20V (most cells), 3h charge typical, fast charge possible with some cells
Discharge (C-rate) 1C typical; 3.00V cut-off; high discharge rate shortens battery life
Cycle life 500 (related to depth of discharge, temperature)
Thermal runaway 150°C (302°F) typical, High charge promotes thermal runaway
Applications Medical devices, industrial, electric powertrain (Tesla)
Comments Shares similarities with Li-cobalt. Serves as Energy Cell.

Table 12: Characteristics of Lithium Nickel Cobalt Aluminum Oxide

Lithium Titanate (Li4Ti5O12)

Batteries with lithium titanate anodes have been known since the 1980s. Li-titanate replaces the graphite in the anode of a typical lithium-ion battery and the material forms into a spinel structure. The cathode is graphite and resembles the architecture of a typical lithium-metal battery. Li-titanate has a nominal cell voltage of 2.40V, can be fast-charged and delivers a high discharge current of 10C, or 10 times the rated capacity. The cycle count is said to be higher than that of a regular Li-ion. Li-titanate is safe, has excellent low-temperature discharge characteristics and obtains a capacity of 80 percent at –30C (–22F). However, the battery is expensive and at 65Wh/kg the specific energy is low, rivalling that of NiCd. Li-titanate charges to 2.80V/cell, and the end of discharge is 1.80V/cell. Figure 13 illustrates the characteristics of the Li-titanate battery. Typical uses are electric powertrains and UPS.

Snapshot of Li-titanate

Figure 13: Snapshot of Li-titanate

Li-titanate excels in safety, low-temperature performance and life span. Efforts are being made to improve the specific energy and lower cost.

Courtesy of BCG research


Summary Table

Lithium Titanate: Graphite cathode; Li4Ti5O12 (titanate) anode                                                                     Short form: LTO or Li-titanate                                                                                                            Since 2008
Voltage, nominal 2.40V
Specific energy (capacity) 70–80Wh/kg
Charge (C-rate) 1C typical; 5C maximum, charges to 2.85V
Discharge (C-rate) 10C possible, 30C 5s pulse; 1.80V cut-off  on LCO/LTO
Cycle life 3,000–7,000
Thermal runaway One of safest Li-ion batteries
Applications UPS, electric powertrain (Mitsubishi i-MiEV, Honda Fit EV)
Comments Long life, fast charge, wide temperature range but low specific energy and expensive. Among safest Li-ion batteries.

Table 14: Characteristics of Lithium Titanate

Figure 15 compares the specific energy of lead, nickel- and lithium-based systems. While NCA is the clear winner by storing more capacity than other systems, this only applies to specific energy. In terms of specific power and thermal stability, Li-manganese and Li-phosphate are superior. Li-titanate may have low capacity but this chemistry outlives most other secondary batteries in terms of life span. It has also the best cold temperature performance. As we move towards electric powertrains, safety and cycle life are becoming more important than capacity alone.

Battery Chemistries

Figure 15: Typical specific energy of lead, nickel- and lithium-based batteries
NCA enjoys the highest specific energy; however, manganese and phosphate are superior in terms of specific power and thermal stability. Li-titanate has the best life span.
Courtesy of Cadex

Last updated: 2015-08-17

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On April 19, 2011 at 1:45pm
Mike wrote:

Not correct: “on charge the flow is from anode to cathode”

On charge, Li+ ion flow is from cathode to anode. On discharge, flow is from anode to cathode.  This is easy to remember.  The battery is assembled in a discharged state, where only the cathode contains lithium (e.g. LiCoO2) and the anode is pure carbon containing no lithium.  Thus on charging, the Li+ flow must be from cathode to anode.

On July 10, 2011 at 4:08am
Ken Neal wrote:

I just want decent battery life for my Mesmerise Phone.

On July 21, 2011 at 9:59am
karl wrote:

Danke für die vergleichende Darstellung der verschiedenen Li-Elemente.
Die Parameter.Grafiken geben einen raschen Überblick.
MFG karl!

On February 1, 2012 at 12:47am
Victor wrote:

Not Correct “Not correct: “on charge the flow is from anode to cathode” “

Lithium ion flow is ALWAYS from anode to cathode, both charge and discharge.  You are confusing the negative and positive electrodes (which are the same on charge and discharge) with the sites of oxidation and reduction (which are respectively the anode and cathode and reverse on charge to discharge and vice / versa).  Battery engineers (me included) use this mistaken nomenclature for the electrodes as a historical artifact of primary (non-rechargeable) batteries which operate only in the discharge mode.

On March 14, 2012 at 2:08pm
Tom Blakley wrote:

Victor’s comments clear up the misunderstanding that Mike voiced concerning the phrase “on charge, the flow is from anode to cathode”, which is found in the first paragraph of the section describing Lithium Cobalt Oxide.
Another (more wordy) way of stating what Victor is teaching is to say that: On Discharge, the negative electrode is called the anode and the positive electrode is called the cathode. However, on Charge, the negative electrode is now called the cathode, while the positive electrode is called the anode.
We swap the names (functions) of the physical negative and positive electrodes depending on whether discharging or charging is occuring.
Another point: The negative electode is always labeled as the negative terminal (-) and the positive electrode is always the positive terminal (+).

On March 20, 2012 at 2:01am
Shivbraham Singh Rajawat wrote:

Very Good Material on Batteries

On March 28, 2012 at 12:44pm
Robert Bernal wrote:

MORE info for the LiFePo4 (lithium iron phosphate) battery… please!
They should not be grouped with the other li-ion chemistries in the “safety” table.
Anyways, they (and I guess, all li-ion types) need to be charged constant current until reaching charged voltage, then constant voltage just for maintaining. I hear that CC/CV is how the li-ion smart chargers do it.
What I want to know, is if it is alright to simply put a low drop out voltage regulator on a 6v SOLAR panel, set to the 3.5 or 3.6v (not 4.2v as with li-ion), would it be Ok? I visualize such that “it can’t get filled up past that point no matter how large the charging source is, as long as the input voltage remains below the recommended charge cut off”. I tried to search this many times but nobody’s doing it.
Bty, they do not have thermal issues and have about 4x the charge discharge cycles (about 2,000 complete) wheras li-ion is prone to thermal issues (catch fire) and only last a few hundred cycles.
For this reason, the LiFePO4 battery should be on the top of everybody’s list and that we all should DEMAND robotic factories that mass produce them cheap enough to be used in solar and electric car applications. The ONLY trade off (other than current high costs) is that it is not quite as energy dense as li-ion. There are enough raw materials in this planet’s crust to safely mine and base an entire global infrastructure on it, too!

On May 15, 2012 at 9:53am
ron davison wrote:

Add a current limiting diode to your idea and whne the battery voltage is very low you will not draw more current than the battey will take without damage.

Caveat…at very very low voltages this current limit is very low and mAY NOT ALLOW FOR A FAST ENOUGH CHARGE if you protect current fore below cot-off chARGING.

a SERIES RESistor with a fet across it (in //) that closes when the battery voltage is above the cut-off voltage (without charge current). So the state of the switch needs to be set with the LDO off. So a timing circuit that turns off the LDo and checks voltage is needed this can be low duty cycle. Starting to not be a simple circuit…

On November 21, 2012 at 6:29am
krishna wrote:

great material ! I have a question though..for motor driven applications like power tools, is it okay to use Li-Cobalt batteries? Is there some precautions to take care of ?
would Li-Manganese be a good choice for tradeoff between power and energy capacity in such applications?

On January 11, 2013 at 9:52pm
John Paul wrote:

Is specific energy and specific capacity the same thing? If yes, are the units of specific energy (W-hr/kg) and specific capacity (mA-hr/kg) are equivalent?

On February 4, 2013 at 6:44am
Tushar Dobhal wrote:

I am involved in a project for making an electric vehicle for the Shell Eco Marathon Asia. I want to know which of the above Li ion batteries will be suitable if I need an energy output of 3 KWhr, and efficiency of the vehicle (Km / KWhr) is of prime importance.

On February 4, 2013 at 1:14pm
ron davison wrote:

LIFEPO4 is your best bet for energy density and power density at this time.
also does not have the level of safety issues, some brands claim they have solved the issue.

On February 4, 2013 at 4:11pm
Victor wrote:

For a (smallish) 3kWh battery in a normal sized EV, the km / kWh of the vehicle will be dominated by the vehicle’s weight and aerodynamics.  The battery type can simply be chosen on energy density considerations.

On March 11, 2013 at 7:46am
Josh wrote:

Request for clarity on the section on Lithium Manganese Oxide:

“An 18650 package can be discharged with currents of 20-30 amps.”


“The long-life version in the 18650 cell has a moderate capacity of 1,100mAh; the high-capacity version is 1,500mAh but has a reduced service life.”

Is this stating that this single 1,100 - 1,500mAh cell can take discharge currents of 20-30 amps, or is it saying that a package of cells in a string can take a such currents?


On May 22, 2013 at 5:09am
Ranjusha wrote:

  I am currently working on manganese oxide based lithium ion battery. I am looking for the best electrolyte for this system. I went through the literature but there are plenty of lithium based electrolytes. Can anyone recommend the best composition for the electrolyte so that the best performance can be attained?

Thanks in advance


On May 24, 2013 at 3:55am
John Hardy wrote:

This is excellent material. The only statement I would suggest you look at again is the “... Li-phosphate has a higher self-discharge than other Li-ion batteries, which can cause balancing issues with aging…”

I have done long term cycle testing on LiFePO4 battery packs and have seen no drift in cell voltages in almost 600 cycles in one test and almost 400 cycles in another. From my observations I see no benefit in balancing a battery of this kind unless there are parasitic loads such as a poorly designed voltage monitoring system. I have also seen no self discharge. I checked some of the cells from the earlier test after 7 - 8 months. The cell voltages were all within 10 mV and were approximately 10 - 20 mV HIGHER than the last recorded ones at the end of the test.

If you would like any of the test data (available as CSVs) give me a shout


On June 10, 2013 at 1:01pm
Rob wrote:


The battery of my ebike is composed of ncr18650b cells.
It will not be used for 3 weeks.
Is it ok to store it loaded at 40% in the fridge ( about 6 degrees celcius) ?

On July 10, 2013 at 5:27am
Mark McElroy wrote:

I am not a battery engineer but, as a chemist, find battery technology fascinating. However, my question is about the PV system I have on my roof. Would it be possible to use a Toyota Prius battery (one that has been replaced because it`s capacity has become too low for efficient use)  to store energy generated from my roof PV panels for use at night?

On August 24, 2013 at 9:17am
Mark McElroy wrote:

I am not sure ow this applies to my query

On October 13, 2013 at 8:19pm
Justin wrote:

Could a Prius cell/cells be used to store energy from a PV, sure but a cell that is already reaching considerable drift won’t be much use as designing both a circuit to compensate for the ESR of the cell and the degrading performance will be tad of a waste of expensive components.  A Prius individual cell is not extremely expensive if Ni-Mh is your goal.  Li-MN in SP arrangement would be far better albeit more complicated to charge.

On November 22, 2013 at 3:54pm
Peter Hasek wrote:

Which of the above-mentioned Lithium battery formulas is closest to the typical Lithium Polymer formulas that are widely used in RC aircraft?

On December 2, 2013 at 9:40pm
Md. Asadur Rahman Dolon wrote:

i need the equipment list and process of lithium ferrous phosphate battery manufacturing.

thanking you

On December 3, 2013 at 2:50am
Mark McElroy wrote:

Thanks Justin, I get your point, although I was thinking of the whole battery from a prius and not an individual cell. I understand that the whole battery has to be replaced when its capacity has reduced to, 40% (not too sure of this figure). So my thought is that at 40% of original capacity it might just do as a storage unit for PV generated energy.

On February 15, 2014 at 10:27am
Nisei wrote:

As I understand, the maximum/minimum charge/discharge voltages for these different Lithium-ion batteries aren’t the same. Would it be possible to add these to the article or can someone point me to a page where I can find them?
Thanks in advance.

On March 18, 2014 at 8:45am
Martyn Adams wrote:

I have the quintessential simple Lithium installation.
Boat, 40ah LiFePO4 “12V” battery,75W solar panel, MPPT controller.
Location NW WA.
Battery seems to maintain a 14.8-15.1V charge after a period of no use which may be temperature dependent.
Anyone see any problems?


On April 10, 2014 at 2:44am
Robert W Best wrote:

Are LFP batteries always conditioned in the factory? Or should I condition new batteries before use?

On May 29, 2014 at 5:43am
Vijay wrote:

Very well explained for better understanding of Li batteries and it’s function for various application.

On July 1, 2014 at 12:59am
John wrote:

needed for my research. Thanks a lot. hope to see more

On July 7, 2014 at 2:15pm
Mohammad wrote:

Does any body know what is the chemistry of LG chem 18650 MG1 2900 Ah battery? What does MG1 stands for?

On August 3, 2014 at 9:40am
Edward wrote:

Here many commented but no one concluded what is the best Lithium battery ?

Can anyone suggest me best battery based on over all performance. High power, Long duration, high cycles, normal charging time,


On August 9, 2014 at 2:29am
Kam wrote:

Is there any easy and non-destructive way to determine the chemistry of an unknown 18650 cell?  And for charging and discharging purposes, does it matter?

I have obtained a number of cells made by EPT out of a computer battery, and I would like to learn how they are best charged and maintained.  By the way, I’m using an imax B6AC charger.

On February 13, 2015 at 5:43am
Tesfamariam wrote:

It is so nice material but it lucks some clear descriptions about the stages of charging and discharging process with in the different oxidation states of Cobalt

On April 5, 2015 at 4:01pm
Antonio wrote:

Done long term testing of LFP   batteries both 26650 and prismatic.
My data doesn’t match your information on high self discharge. Get around 1-2 percent a month in prismatic cells.
The only umbalance happened with a set of second-grade 26650 cells in a single occurrence. If your testing indicates unbalance, check the source of your batteries. LFP can replace lead-acid -if so is decided from maret, provided that defective cells are not sniked into production.

On April 13, 2015 at 8:59am
jess vote wrote:

good god anode and cathode, capacitance, farads and such. why can’t people make a usage of the power generated by our planet. e.g. what tesla worked on. free power transmitted? heck if it relates to lightning and our own ionosphere, why not use it? storage banks that we use to harness the power of lightning strikes, but some crazy bastard will use it to get rich. nature is rich in the evolution of man. and all i have to say is kiss, an acronym.. nuff said. just my thought. tesla was the stuff.

On April 14, 2015 at 2:31pm
Antonio wrote:

Dear Friend.
don’t you like batteries?
Portable electric power, solid state electronics and the IP protocol are the three most important achievements of Mankind. The poetry of our Genre, which Tesla represented genially, by fusing the practical aspects of electricity, with the invisible (at the time) potentiality of alternating current.
He didn’t harnessed Earth energy directly, as you propose. Think. It is possible to harness the power of a lightning, but not very practical. We all hope for better batteries and nuclear fusion. The alternative, and there is no point to it, we will be back to a cave all together. Fancy that?

On April 22, 2015 at 9:59pm
Theo Veeren wrote:

Dear Sir,
I am an elevator mechanic by trade since the last 30 years and soon I will be retiring I wonder if you can recomend a basic book with instructions which a simple mechanic can understand ( I still remember Ohms law )on how to build a battery, and charger for electric bikes according to Australian standards as a pensioner I like to produce battery which delivers enough power to drive the Tricycle or bike 30 /40 km distance with a speed of 20km/hr. could you please supply the info about which type of batteries, charger and battery monitors you would use and preferable a wiring diagram for the serial and paralel and monitoring wiring connections. I know it is a big ask but I be willing to pay for your advice if it is not too expensive, I be grateful. sincerely, Theo Veeren

On June 4, 2015 at 4:39am

i want more information about LiNiCoAlO2(lithium nickel cobalt aluminium oxide). plss . send a reply..

On June 15, 2015 at 1:24am
Larry Becque wrote:

What about the new LimPO4 batteries?

On June 15, 2015 at 10:03am
Antonio wrote:

LiNiCoAlO2 are the Panasonic NCR18650B, they give 2C max current and 3450 mAh capacity. They have a graphite anode. Shortly we should see the same battery with a silicone anode, as they reached max half capacity. Next gen with silicone anode will start at 3900 mAh.
LiMnPo4 batteries are an evolution of LiFePO4, giving higher terminal voltage. From what I know production of those haven’t ramped up. Manganese is not allowing the same 2000 cycles of correspondent iron-based structure.

On June 15, 2015 at 4:14pm
Larry Becque wrote:

I became aware of LimPO4 batteries when I saw the following listing on eBay for a BMS:
Apparently, in China, they are starting to replace Lead Acid car starting batteries with these.  Interesting idea; less weight, less environmental problems.  Just wonder how practical it is in real use compared to the brute durability of Lead Acid.

On June 16, 2015 at 10:15pm
peter mare wrote:

Based on our patent-pending supercapacitor technology that uses a novel conductive polymer material, we are developing a high capacity Super Cathode for use by battery manufacturers to create the ultimate high capacity, low cost lithium-ion battery.

Our novel high capacity cathode is engineered from a polymer, similar to that of low-cost plastics used in the household. Through a smart chemical design, we are able to make the polymer hold an enormous amount of electrons. Instead of conventional cathodes that use lithium-ion intercalation chemistry, which is inherently slow, we exploit the fast redox-reaction properties of our polymer to enable rapid charge and discharge.

Most lithium-ion batteries cannot retain more than 80% of its storage capacity after 1,000 charge-discharge cycles. The stable redox chemistry of our cathode material can enable much longer life. Our laboratory experiments have shown that our cathode can easily cycle over 50,000 times without degradation in supercapacitors, and we believe that it can be very effective in batteries as well.

By enabling higher charge-discharge cycles, we can extend the life of lithium-ion batteries and further reduce the total cost of ownership. In certain applications such as off-grid solar energy storage where the batteries are fully charged and discharged daily, it is not cost-effective to use current lithium-ion batteries due to short replacement life.

We believe that by integrating our Super Cathode with conventional anodes, a complete lithium-ion battery can be built that is lower cost, higher capacity, faster charging and longer life.



On August 14, 2015 at 8:44am
Gerald Biccum wrote:

Gerald this is awesome

On September 25, 2015 at 1:59am
sunil jaiswal wrote:

nice literature on li battary

On September 30, 2015 at 12:45pm
Larry Becque wrote:

Here is more information I found on WIkipedia regarding LimP04 batteries that clears this up for me:
LiFePO4 is a member of the olivine group, which has a general chemical formula of LiMPO4, where M refers to any metal, including Fe, Co, Mn and Ti. The first commercial LiMPO4 was C/LiFePO4 and therefore, people refer to the whole group of LiMPO4 as lithium iron phosphate, LiFePO4. However, more than one olivine compound may be used as a battery’s cathode material. Olivine compounds such as AyMPO4, Li1-xMFePO4, and LiFePO4-zM have the same crystal structures as LiMPO4 and may replace in a cathode. All may be referred to as “LFP”.

So the M in LiMPO4 stands for any metal, not necessarily Mn.  Apparently, LFP batteries aren’t necessarily Fe based and could be one of several metals.  A bit of a misnomer has started since the first batteries where indeed Fe based.  It would be better to start calling these LMP batteries but the misnomer has already been done.

On September 30, 2015 at 9:35pm
Andy Frederickson wrote:

Valuable site.

On October 17, 2015 at 12:56pm
hrncirik wrote:

Charging anode is reduction. Li+ +e = Li metal anode;
or Li+ + C + e =  Li+ + C- graphite (carbide) anion anode;  simply C + e = C-

On November 2, 2015 at 11:45pm
Dr Weathers wrote:


On November 27, 2015 at 9:57am
Jonathan M wrote:

Great site!
What’s about Lithium Polymer?