BU-101: When Was the Battery Invented?

Explore the earliest forms of batteries and the arrival of electricity.

One of the most remarkable and novel discoveries in the last 400 years was electricity. We might ask, “Has electricity been around that long?” The answer is yes, and perhaps much longer. Its practical use has only been at our disposal since the mid to late 1800s, and in a limited way at first. Some of the earliest public works gaining attention were streets lights in Berlin in 1882, lighting up the Chicago World’s Fair in 1893 with 250,000 light bulbs, and illuminating a bridge over the river Seine during the Paris 1900 World Fair.

The use of electricity may go back further. While constructing a railway in 1936 near Baghdad, workers uncovered what appeared to be a prehistoric battery, also known as the Parthian Battery. The object dates back to the Parthian empire and is believed to be 2,000 years old. The battery consisted of a clay jar that was filled with a vinegar solution into which an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder was inserted. This device produced 1.1 to 2.0 volts of electricity. Figure 1 illustrates the Parthian Battery.

Parthian Battery

.Parthian Battery in detail

Figure 1: Parthian Battery.
A clay jar of a prehistoric battery holds an iron rod surrounded by a copper cylinder. When filled with vinegar or electrolytic solution, the jar produces 1.1 to 2 volts.


Not all scientists accept the Parthian Battery as a source of energy. It is possible that the device was used for electroplating, adding a layer of gold or other precious metals to a surface. The Egyptians are said to have electroplated antimony onto copper over 4,300 years ago. Archeological evidence suggests the Babylonians were the first to discover and employ a galvanic technique in the manufacturing of jewelry by using an electrolyte based on grape juice to gold-plate stoneware. The Parthians, who ruled Baghdad (ca. 250 BC), may have used batteries to electroplate silver.

ne of the earliest methods to generate electricity in modern times was by creating a static charge. In 1660, Otto von Guericke constructed an electrical machine using a large sulfur globe which, when rubbed and turned, attracted feathers and small pieces of paper. Guericke was able to prove that the sparks generated were electrical in nature.

In 1744, Ewald Georg von Kleist developed the Leyden jar that stored static charge in a glass jar that was lined with metallic foil on the inside and outside of the container. Many scientists, including Peter van Musschenbroek, professor at Leiden, the Netherlands, thought that electricity resembled a fluid that could be captured in a bottle. They did not know that the two metallic foils formed a capacitor. When charged up with high voltage, the Leyden jar gave the gentlemen an unexplainable hefty shock when they touched the metallic foil.

The first practical use of static electricity was the “electric pistol” that Alessandro Volta (1745–1827) invented. He thought of providing long-distance communications, albeit only one Boolean bit. An iron wire supported by wooden poles was to be strung from Como to Milan, Italy. At the receiving end, the wire would terminate in a jar filled with methane gas. To signal a coded event, an electrical spark would be sent by wire to detonate the jar. This communications link was never built. Figure 1-2 shows a pencil rendering of Alessandro Volta.

Alessandro Volta, inventor of the electric battery
Figure 2: Alessandro Volta, inventor of the electric battery. 
Volta’s discovery of the decomposition of water by an electrical current laid the foundation of electrochemistry.
Courtesy of Cadex

In 1791, while working at Bologna University, Luigi Galvani discovered that the muscle of a frog would contract when touched by a metallic object. This phenomenon became known as animal electricity. Prompted by these experiments, Volta initiated a series of experiments using zinc, lead, tin and iron as positive plates (cathode); and copper, silver, gold and graphite as negative plates (anode). The interest in galvanic electricity soon became widespread.

Early Batteries

Volta discovered in 1800 that certain fluids would generate a continuous flow of electrical power when used as a conductor. This discovery led to the invention of the first voltaic cell, more commonly known as battery. Volta learned further that the voltage would increase when voltaic cells were stacked on top of each other. Figure 3 illustrates such a series connection.


Silver (A) and zinc (Z) metals are immersed in cups filled with electrolyte and connected in series


.Silver and zinc electrodes are connected in series, separated by paper soaked with electrolyte.

Figure 3: Volta’s experiments with the electric battery in 1796.
Metals in a battery have different electron affinities. Volta noticed that the voltage potential of dissimilar metals became stronger the farther apart the affinity numbers moved.
The first number in the metals listed below demonstrates the affinity to attract electrons; the second is the oxidation state.

Zinc = 1.6 / -0.76 V
Lead = 1.9 / -0.13 V
Tin = 1.8 / -1.07 V
Iron = 1.8 / -0.04 V
Copper = 1.9 / 0.159 V
Silver = 1.9 / 1.98 V
Gold = 2.4 / 1.83 V
Carbon = 2.5 / 0.13 V

The metals determine the battery voltage; they were separated with moist paper soaked in salt water.
Courtesy of Cadex


In the same year, Volta released his discovery of a continuous source of electricity to the Royal Society of London. No longer were experiments limited to a brief display of sparks that lasted a fraction of a second; an endless stream of electric current now seemed possible.

France was one of the first nations to officially recognize Volta’s discoveries. This was during a time when France was approaching the height of scientific advancements. New ideas were welcomed with open arms as they helped to support of the country’s political agenda. In a series of lectures, Volta addressed the Institute of France. Napoleon Bonaparte participated in the experiments, drawing sparks from the battery, melting a steel wire, discharging an electric pistol and decomposing water into its elements (see Figure 4).

Volta’s experimentations at the Institute of France

Figure 4: Volta’s experimentations at the Institute of France.
Volta’s discoveries so impressed the world that in November 1800 the Institute of France invited him to lecture at events in which Napoleon Bonaparte participated. Napoleon helped with the experiments, drawing sparks from the battery, melting a steel wire, discharging an electric pistol and decomposing water into its elements.
Courtesy of Cadex

In 1800, Sir Humphry Davy, inventor of the miner’s safety lamp, began testing the chemical effects of electricity and found out that decomposition occurred when passing electrical current through substances. This process was later called electrolysis.

He made new discoveries by installing the world’s largest and most powerful electric battery in the vaults of the Royal Institution of London, connecting the battery to charcoal electrodes produced the first electric light. Witnesses reported that his voltaic arc lamp produced “the most brilliant ascending arch of light ever seen.”

In 1802, William Cruickshank designed the first electric battery for mass production. He arranged square sheets of copper with equal-sized sheets of zinc placed into a long rectangular wooden box and soldered together. Grooves in the box held the metal plates in position. The sealed box was then filled with an electrolyte of brine, or watered-down acid. This resembled the flooded battery that is still with us today. Figure 5 illustrates his battery workshop.

Cruickshank and the first flooded battery

Figure 5: Cruickshank and the first flooded battery. 
William Cruickshank, an English chemist, built a battery of electric cells by joining zinc and copper plates in a wooden box filled with an electrolyte solution. This flooded design had the advantage of not drying out with use and provided more energy than Volta’s disc arrangement.

Courtesy of Cadex

Invention of the Rechargeable Battery

In 1836, John F. Daniell, an English chemist, developed an improved battery that produced a steadier current than earlier attempts to store electrical energy. In 1859, the French physician Gaston Planté invented the first rechargeable battery based on lead acid, a system that is still used today. Until then, all batteries were primary, meaning they could not be recharged.

In 1899, Waldmar Jungner from Sweden invented the nickel-cadmium (NiCd) battery that used nickel as the positive electrode (cathode) and cadmium as the negative (anode). High material costs compared to lead limited its use.  Two years later, Thomas Edison replaced cadmium with iron, and this battery was called nickel-iron (NiFe). Low specific energy, poor performance at low temperature and high self-discharge limited the success of the nickel-iron battery. It was not until 1932 that Schlecht and Ackermann achieved higher load currents and improved the longevity of NiCd by inventing the sintered pole plate. In 1947, Georg Neumann succeeded in sealing the cell

For many years, NiCd was the only rechargeable battery for portable applications. In the 1990s, environmentalists in Europe became concerned about the harm incurred when NiCd is carelessly disposed. The Battery Directive 2006/66/EC now restricts the sale of NiCd batteries in the European Union except for specialty industrial use for which no replacement is suitable. The alternative is nickel-metal-hydride (NiMH), a more environmentally friendly battery that is similar to NiCd.

Most research activities today revolve around improving lithium-based systems, first commercialized by Sony in 1991. Besides powering cellular phones, laptops, digital cameras, power tools and medical devices, Li-ion is also used for electric vehicles and satellites. The battery has a number of benefits, most notably its high specific energy, simple charging, low maintenance and being environmentally benign.

Electricity Through Magnetism

Generating electricity through magnetism came relatively late. In 1820, André-Marie Ampère (1775–1836) noticed that wires carrying an electric current were at times attracted to, and at other times repelled from, one another. In 1831, Michael Faraday (1791–1867) demonstrated how a copper disc provided a constant flow of electricity while revolving in a strong magnetic field. Faraday, assisting Humphry Davy and his research team, succeeded in generating an endless electrical force as long as the movement between a coil and magnet continued. This led to the invention of the electric generator, as well as the electric motor by reversing the process.

Shortly thereafter, transformers were developed that converted alternating current (AC) to any desired voltage. In 1833, Faraday established the foundation of electrochemistry on which Faraday’s law is based. It relates to electromagnetism found in transformers, inductors and many types of electrical motors and generators. Once the relationship with magnetism was understood, large generators were built to produce a steady flow of electricity. Motors followed that enabled mechanical movement and Thomas Edison’s light bulb appeared to conquer darkness.

Early electrical plants produced direct current (DC) with distribution limitations of 3km (~2 miles) from the plant. In around 1886, the Niagara Falls Power Company (NFPC) offered $100,000 for a method to transmit electricity over a long distance. After much controversy and failed proposals, the world’s brightest minds met in London, England, and the prize was awarded to Nikola Tesla (1856–1943), a Serbian immigrant who created the AC transmission system. NRPC with Tesla as a consultant built a multi-phase AC system, delivering power from new Niagara power station as far as Buffalo, NY.


Figure 6: Nikola Tesla (1856–1943).
Serbian-American physicist, inventor and engineer best known for alternating current supply systems and rotating magnetic fields.

DC systems run on low voltage and require heavy wires; AC could be transformed to higher voltages for transmission over light wires and then reduced for use. Older folks supported DC while younger geniuses gravitated towards AC. Thomas Edison was dead set against AC, giving danger by electrocution as a reason.

The disagreement continued, but AC became the accepted norm that was also supported by Europe. George Westinghouse, an American inventor and manufacturer, began developing the Tesla system to the displeasure of Thomas Edison.

To everyone’s amazement, AC power lit up the Chicago World Fair in 1893 (Figure 7). Westinghouse then built three large generators to transform energy from the Niagara Falls to electricity. Three-phase AC technology developed by Tesla enabled the transmission of electric power over great distances cheaply. Electricity was thus made widely available to humanity to improve the quality of life.

250,000 light bulbs illuminate Chicago's World Columbian Exposition in 1896

Figure 7: 250,000 light bulbs illuminate the Chicago World Fair in 1893, also known as Chicago's World Columbian Exposition.
The success of the electric light led to building three large hydro generators at Niagara Falls.
Source: Brooklyn Museum Archives. Goodyear Archival Collection 

Telecommunications by wire that was strung along railways operated mostly by primary batteries that needed frequent replacement. Telex, an early means to transmit data, was digital in that the batteries activated a series of relays. The price to send a message was based on the number of relay clicks required.

In the mid-1800s, telegraphy opened new careers for bright young men. Staff operating these devices moved into the growing middle class, far removed from mills and mines burdened with labor, dirt and danger. Steel magnate Andrew Carnegie recalled his early days as a telegraphy messenger: Alfred Hitchcock started his career as an estimator before becoming an illustrator.

The invention of the electronic vacuum tube in the early 1900s formed the significant next step towards high technology. It enabled frequency oscillators, signal amplifications and digital switching. This led to radio broadcasting in the 1920s and the first digital computer, called ENIAC, in 1946. The invention of the transistor in 1947 paved the way for the arrival of the integrated circuit 10 years later, and the microprocessor that ushered in the Information Age. This forever changed the way we live and work.

Humanity has become dependent on electricity and with increased mobility, people gravitate towards portable power involving the battery. As the battery improves further, more tasks will be made possible with this portable power source.

Last Updated 2018-04-12

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Comments (105)

On October 15, 2010 at 3:04am
kaushik ghosh wrote:

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On November 13, 2010 at 10:36pm
Mahesh D Goudar wrote:

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On November 19, 2010 at 11:05am
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On December 13, 2010 at 9:39am
jim wiggins wrote:

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On December 15, 2010 at 1:22am
ufiq wrote:

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On December 20, 2010 at 3:03am
inbasekaran wrote:

Good collection of knowlwedge from ancient times to modern time

On December 20, 2010 at 3:06am
inbasekaran wrote:

More information on fuel cells need to be updated

On December 28, 2010 at 3:33pm
Anthony wrote:

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On January 15, 2011 at 10:58am
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On January 21, 2011 at 4:06am
Narongchai wrote:

How about the story of the solar cell?

On February 20, 2011 at 5:50am
Giuseppe Sturiale wrote:

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Thank you for your activity.

On February 22, 2011 at 2:11am
Hussein wrote:

The first electric cell discovered in the world was in Babylon in Iraq.

On March 15, 2011 at 1:19am
ashok wrote:


On March 17, 2011 at 10:58pm
wg cdr p janardhana wrote:

Excellent information at on place. lot of thanks to authors.

On March 20, 2011 at 11:58am
AJ wrote:

Nice collection of basic information

On March 22, 2011 at 8:53am
Brandon wrote:

This article has been updated as of March 17th with new information extracted from the upcoming third edition of our book Batteries in a Portable World. Enjoy!


On April 28, 2011 at 8:54am
david wrote:

hey if the battery wasent enventid noeone would have nothing

On June 24, 2011 at 3:34am
Love it wrote:

Really informative. Keep it up guys!

On August 9, 2011 at 2:33pm
Peter Koch wrote:

You wrote, “One of the earliest public works gaining attention was an electrically illuminated bridge over the river Seine during the 1900 World Fair in Paris.”  Even earlier was the lighting of 250,000 electric light bulbs at the 1893 Columbian Exposition in Chicago by George Westinghouse using the polyphase AC generation methods developed by Nikola Tesla.  There are many photos of this on the internet, e.g., http://explorepahistory.com/displayimage.php?imgId=1-2-1B46&storyId=1-9-1C .  Perhaps you were referring to electric illumination with use of energy stored in batteries.

On August 25, 2011 at 8:01pm
tim bertram wrote:

hi mate

On September 28, 2011 at 8:48pm
MIKE HUNT wrote:


On October 7, 2011 at 4:59am
Dent wrote:

In 1901 Thomas A. Edison brought out one of Volta’s battery designs calling it the Edison battery, that was one heck of a battery. I often wonder why we do not use it today in our solar/wind/water storage applications. It lasts forever if taken care of and it only lacks a small percentage of power when compared to a lead acid battery. I have heard stories of these batteries lasting for over a hundred years with proper maintenance. Try to get one tenth that out of any other storage device. They are no longer made in the USA, you have to go to China to get one. They are safer and more Eco friendly than lead acid. SO why?? Does anyone really know?

I know it is nice to save space and have more power, but considering how long they last and they are similar to lead acid as far a power output I wouldn’t mind putting in a few more batteries in my unit to have some last for a life time. My dad said they used them on the windmills in the early 1900s through the 1950s in the mid-west as storage batteries where people did not have electricity to run well pumps and other farming uses, houses any kind of electrical need. He said they need proper maintenance and clean electrolyte and they will last forever. They never replaced any when he was growing up so he had no idea how old they were. There is not much written about these batteries I can find as far as people using them now-a-days. Cheers all!

On October 9, 2011 at 9:54pm
manu ks wrote:

informative nice. . . .

On November 4, 2011 at 3:21am
Dent wrote:

I forgot one important thing about why Edison was looking for a new battery. He was involved in promoting electric cars and because of the lead acid batteries spilling on the people in the car they were becoming un-popular. Using sulfuric acid is hard on skin when the batteries leaked and much worse in case of a crash, as it spilled onto the occupants. He needed a battery that did not harm people and Volta’s nickel-iron battery worked pretty well. Volta failed to patent the design and Edison did, and that we say was that.

In my reading over the years it seems poor ol’ Volta did not get credit for several of his ideas. Oh well, it sure isn’t the first time one failed to get credit for their ideas in the electrical industry. One big one come to mind: Marconi is thought to be the father of the wireless radio, when it was Nicola Tesla’s ideas that were used by Marconi to create wireless. I believe Marconi used three of Tesla’s patents in his device. I took until the 1940s to get the courts to settle that fight and Tesla won, however it was a little to late, as he passed away shortly before the decision.

On January 18, 2012 at 8:03am
Adarsh wrote:

this is the exact webpage to know about the invention of battery

On February 20, 2012 at 4:11am
manizheh wrote:

I enjoyed.
this website is really user friendly

On March 12, 2012 at 11:38am
bee wrote:

this website help me a lot with my project…........ smile   
thank you very much…..

On March 22, 2012 at 11:04am
student AAAAA wrote:

Describe the year and the person who was first credited with creating continuous electricity.
Describe the apparatus that was used to create this electricity.
A very important name in the history of electricity conducted experiments in 1831. Name the man and what was significant about these experiments.
During World War II, the carbon-zinc cell was replaced in harsh climates by what type of cell?
Give a short description of the reason for the development of the alkaline cell which is so commonly found today.

On April 16, 2012 at 8:13pm
Dent wrote:

Well now, good questions. There are a few opinions that may not align with some of the proof that comes from other countries. Many of who did what and what time to whom, so keep that in mind. It could be argued the continuous battery was invented in Iraq back in 1000 ad, it just depends on who thinks that thing is a battery that was found.  These are what I think. Most all of the batteries chemistry you are talking about here were developed in the 1800s and brought into production in the 1900s.

1 Alessandro Volta
2 voltaic pile
3 Michael Faraday and magnetic fields/electric motors There can’t be enough said about this old boy. He is the father of just about everything electronic. One who is interested in the history of electricity can just about take everything back to Faraday. Were not worthy! Were not worthy!
4 mercury, great battery, bad new for the environment.
5 longevity and higher voltage

Here is one for you. What battery has been reintroduced in the last few years as something new to the consumer? Who came up with the chemistry?


On April 20, 2012 at 7:55pm
Ahmed wrote:

i want information of battery positive and nagative cells making for test so how i mak thr chamicals

On April 20, 2012 at 11:29pm
Dent wrote:

There is a lot of great information right here on this web site about what you can use for the chemicals/electrolytes that are used in a battery. If you read through this page here you will be able to build a simple battery. You can use lemon juice, vinegar, bleach and other pretty safe electrolytes. They do not make as much voltage, but they will power an LED. I am not sure what you are trying to do, but I wish you luck and I hope I have helped. If you have any more questions, just ask. There are some bright people here who I am sure would enjoy helping. Cheers!

On May 3, 2012 at 4:15am
Dent wrote:

Does anyone know a place in the states when you can get new Edison Batteries? (nickel Iron) I would like to get some to use in a solar charging station. So many people I have talked to that have some old one still in use after a hundred years love them. They found them in an old wind mill charging station int he mid west and cleaned them up and put them back to use. They do not have the storage capasity of lead acid, but they last forever if taken care of properly.

On May 31, 2012 at 9:04pm
N.Rao wrote:

very informative for learners

On July 17, 2012 at 11:16pm
ayub wrote:

well done ! keep it up.
please do indepth research on present and upcoming lithium batteries,
much obliged

On August 1, 2012 at 9:46am
Chulumanco wrote:

why have so many different battery technologies been developed?

On December 1, 2012 at 1:55pm
Walter Waes wrote:

I am a novice in this field, but because I am getting involved in developing a battery-system with management and loader in order to modify a hybrid car into an electric car. The idea is using a series of batteries to get 150 V and the necessary Ampères to be able to drive the car.
What I read so-far is improving my knowledge and I am looking forward to learn how to get the required power.
Kind regards,

On December 11, 2012 at 4:27am
Michael wrote:

nice now i know When was the Battery Invented? :D

On February 13, 2013 at 1:32am

I am a novice in this field, but because I am getting involved in developing a battery-system with management and loader in order to modify a hybrid car into an electric car. The idea is using a series of batteries to get 150 V and the necessary Ampères to be able to drive the car.
What I read so-far is improving my knowledge and I am looking forward to learn how to get the required power.
Kind regards,

On February 13, 2013 at 2:12am
Walter wrote:


Until now we used 3 V / 60 Ah times 78 = 234 V for a Prius II.
Because of the fact that the weight was 160 kg, it was absolutely needed to replace the springs in the rear.  Nevertheless the kit was working very well.
Now,  my friend the technician, is looking for lighter batteries at a reasonable price.  We hope to find that soon.
Kind regards   |||||    Walter

On March 23, 2013 at 6:22pm
JABBAR Gargash wrote:

Thank you for this site

On April 21, 2013 at 10:01pm
Subramanyam wrote:

It is really a great idea to provide all the information regarding batteries and its basics to educate people and to have innovative ideas to go further in devoloping batteries in future.


On April 23, 2013 at 2:16am
Walter wrote:

We found the same kind of battery that Tesla is using.  Also, we believe to know the way they use it.  For the moment it its tried in a Prius2.  You must understand that, as long as it is not commercialized, we cannot release this “secret”.
Until soon,


On June 13, 2013 at 1:54am
Navraj Phulara wrote:

I think ,we produce electric charge by means of pressure. If we able to move the electron in the material by means of pressure, then this concept of flow of electron lead us to the concept of electricity. I have spend a lot of time to think about this concept.I did some research work about this. If this is possible , the universe will be shining.

On February 19, 2014 at 12:56pm
Andrea Alvaro wrote:

i think we need more information about batteries for our projects.

On March 17, 2014 at 2:05pm
chrisb wrote:

thanks for the useful information, very informative

On April 3, 2014 at 8:17am
yolo wrote:

hey, thanks for the info.    Helped a lot ; )

On May 23, 2014 at 8:06pm
IAN wrote:

how do you determine the size of a battery for your car?
what size is needed to run lights,wipers,stereos etc, how do i work this out?

On June 26, 2014 at 6:48am
Thomas Soares wrote:

We need to move on and get rid of batteries at all ! There is Free Energy in the vacuum.

And for practical examples:

On July 17, 2014 at 4:43am
Jackson wrote:

Very informative
Good useful information,

On July 17, 2014 at 11:30am
Thonas Soares wrote:

Yesterday i finished the replication of this technology:


And it is now working fine with a Joule Thief circuit and a LED.

On July 30, 2014 at 10:53pm
Abhyuday wrote:

nice specific information unlike anything I have seen in internet

On August 8, 2014 at 10:46pm
kiran wrote:

nice information good one

On August 26, 2014 at 4:56pm
Julie wrote:


On October 12, 2014 at 10:45am
Jyothis wrote:

Hai,This article is awesome.It was helpful.
I have a doubt regarding this by the way.I understand that salt bridge is Na2SO4 salt.When Oxidation happens, Zinc atom loses its 2 electron which goes to the external circuit and zn2+ ion will be in the zinc sulphate solution.Zinc ion reacts with SO4 2- ions from the salt bridge and the electrolyte would be neutral.Now in the cathode part Copper from copper sulphate solution combines with the 2 electrons from the anode and copper metal deposites on the cathode leaving soa 2- ions.This makes the electrolyte at cathode negative in charge.

1.What happens to SO4 2- ions,does it combine with Na2+ ions in the salt bridge turning the solution a mixture of Na2SO4 and Cu2SO4 solution?
2.Untill what condition does the redox reaction prolong,Is it untill zinc totally gets consumed or at a condition where there is no more Na2+ or SO4 2- ions in Salt bridge to balance the electolytes?

On October 30, 2014 at 10:04pm
Adenwilliams wrote:

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On October 31, 2014 at 6:10pm
kariah johnson wrote:

I need to know how batteries r in important to the society and it is not telling me so how can i do get the answer.

On November 15, 2014 at 3:57am
Lodewijk Langeweg wrote:

What I’m missing in the descriotion of the invention of the battery is the:

“Leyden jar”

With photograph (Leiden as it is now spelled is a city in The Netherlands) and “Leidse fles” means “Bottle of Leiden”:


On December 2, 2014 at 3:52pm
qwertyuiopasdfghjklzxcvbnm wrote:

I’m missing what lead him to invent the first battery. does any one know.

On December 2, 2014 at 3:57pm
ARE YOU MY BAE or NOT wrote:


    THANKS!!!!!!!!!!!!:) SO ARE YOU

On February 12, 2015 at 12:24am
Rodski wrote:

This helps me a lot!,great information from past to present age.,

On March 8, 2015 at 8:08am
Alok Bhatnagar wrote:

No body teaches about batteries the way this wonderful collection does. Basics are seldom discussed in the professional world. India is getting big way into electric vehicles.  Battery banks, chargers and battery fundamentals need to be quickly understood if the Indian Dream of Electric Vehicles is to be made a success.

On March 8, 2015 at 7:53pm
spooky memeZ wrote:

thanks bois n girls for dis valuable information
helped my assignment a lot

On April 10, 2015 at 11:34am
cool wrote:

nice info

On April 13, 2015 at 7:56am
rainy wrote:

this rocks

On April 23, 2015 at 9:02pm
Dent wrote:

I sure enjoy this site. I is nice to come back and read all the new contributions over the years. Thanks for keeping this site up for all to enjoy!

Cheers all.

On May 9, 2015 at 4:43pm
chanelle wrote:

i dont understand…

On May 14, 2015 at 4:21am
Vignesh wrote:

I accept this site is very important for who want to be a scientist. My suggestion is please provide more information about this because who want do it in home. You should understand that somebodies can’t understand this.Its ok but this is good site for who want to scientist.

On May 14, 2015 at 4:29am
Vignesh wrote:

Can you anyone teach this experiment.

On May 17, 2015 at 5:44am
Dent wrote:

Which one are you talking about? I m7ght be able to point you in the right direction.


On May 22, 2015 at 11:23am
theexterminator wrote:


On May 22, 2015 at 11:25am
theexterminator wrote:


On July 24, 2015 at 7:45am
Sonia Fernandez wrote:

Is the building of a battery mentioned in the bible and if so where in the bible can I find the info.

On July 24, 2015 at 2:41pm
Dent wrote:

HI am not aware of any mention of a batery in my bibles. King James or NIV. No one is even sure if the device called the Bagdad battery is really a battery. After years of reading about it I’m not sure what it is myself. Good luck!

On September 28, 2015 at 8:37am
David Bradbury wrote:

Considering the time scale we have had the electric battery I find it diff to understand why the storage cell is not more efficient and reliable if it had been as I say above perhaps we would have a much cleaner environment with less fossil fuels being spewed into the environment, No I still consider we have not placed sufficient weight upon the battery to be more reliable and cleaner for all. david bradbury

On October 18, 2015 at 4:49pm
tyler wrote:

it is cool site

On October 18, 2015 at 4:51pm
doopyschmoopy wrote:

This was very helpful

On November 28, 2015 at 5:20pm
Andrew Charnley wrote:

Excellent information as I am assisting an inventor of a uniquely hi-tech Battery Rejuvenator to reach investors and market.  So far the device has succeeded in converting slightly more than 30% of over 100 batteries from truly dead, and having remained disconnected from any device for up to one year, to as new, as in brand new.

On December 22, 2015 at 1:29am
Taylor wrote:

Batteries will change the current world,the vehicles,the electric device…will be upsided by the most developed and innovative batteries.What I worry is the important technology mostly hold in Japan and Korea.What has Europe and America done?The best and the most forwarded technology must hold in Europe and America,because in god we trust!

On December 25, 2015 at 1:14am
Luis Grau wrote:

Great site. A comment on terminology: cathode = negative pole; anode = positive pole. Best regards

On January 19, 2016 at 1:22pm
kingjoe wrote:

lol awsome

On February 1, 2016 at 3:30am


On February 2, 2016 at 6:09am
............. wrote:

This was GREAT information for my project. Before I read this it was dull and boring then i added someof the cool facts on this site to my project and it became interesting.

On May 18, 2016 at 8:54am
Dude wrote:

Volta was definitely a smart man!

On May 18, 2016 at 12:56pm
david bradbury wrote:

Thanks, such good reading, i did as a small child experiment in granddads shed, not sure how many chickens died but i did make my very own first battery soon to be followed by my own electric motor. your stuff is so good to read. Thank you, david bradbury

On June 30, 2016 at 2:26am
Samuel wrote:

Very informative post. But there are few corrections Anode referes to positive plate and cathode refers to negative positive plate.

On August 5, 2016 at 8:52am


On August 13, 2016 at 11:40am
Dave Pickell wrote:

Just a note of appreciation on your overview. Love the Parthian Jar! Dave

On August 22, 2016 at 8:48am
Kent Cotterell wrote:

Their nickel-iron batteries lasted them over 100 years? Wow. I don’t know if I should congratulate them or their batteries.

On November 14, 2016 at 9:51am
Max May wrote:

what progress is being made using aluminium. Also the advantage using Lithium over lead is weight.

On November 21, 2016 at 6:35pm
sapphire wrote:


On January 9, 2017 at 9:57am
Gloria Hawkins wrote:

Thank you for a well-written history of the battery. This helped my grandson understand the background for his science project.

On January 25, 2017 at 10:08am
Dinesh Kumar Hattangadi wrote:

It is heartening to know the scientific progress from Biblic times till to date where we are dabbling with AI,robots & driverles vehicals! Our ancients dreamt these through fables of Gods,Godeses & celestials.

On February 15, 2017 at 11:08pm
David Fink wrote:

The transistor was not “discovered”; it was “invented.”

On July 10, 2017 at 6:51am
Ekansh Pathak wrote:

Very nice article. I loved it.

On September 15, 2017 at 5:51am
Gregg on yt wrote:

i used this 4 scool

On November 6, 2017 at 12:54pm
A confused person wrote:

How am I even supposed to summarize the history of the battery into one paragraph for a science fair project?  THERE’S LIKE A MILLION INVENTORS THAT IMPROVED THE BATTERY AND LIKE A TRILLION DATES RELATED TO THE SIMPLE BATTERY.

On November 6, 2017 at 3:12pm
A Student wrote:

Wow.  That’s a lot of info.  Wonder how long it would take for me to summarize this into one paragraph…

On November 14, 2017 at 7:55am
James cross wrote:

this is a great website full of imformation. love it xxx

On November 28, 2017 at 3:01pm
christian feliz wrote:

great job especially the infomation like i said good job

On December 23, 2017 at 6:43am
Ravi Aluganti wrote:

A very good history of ‘the story of battery’, hope the same simplicity is maintained in moving forward to the present battery technology.

On April 15, 2018 at 11:02pm
Salah Mhmd wrote:

Very impressive piece of history that has an impact on future of everything! Thank you for the invaluable compilation!

On May 14, 2018 at 10:51am
emily wrote:

i dont know how to read but this seems neat and interesting.

On August 10, 2018 at 7:26pm
C Thomas wrote:

The so-called “Baghdad Battery” wasn’t a battery, or an electro-plating device

It was a scroll case

On November 29, 2018 at 12:16am
Zohaib Hyder wrote:

There is a non functioning new Indsutrial Battery Factory in South India built at a cost of 12 million us$. It is available for take over. I am looking for technical and equity partners from USA, Canada or Europe willing to invest 2 millioin US$. for a 40% share. Kindly contact me on 9113536805 -India or e.mail. edenfruits@gmail.com.

On December 3, 2018 at 6:27am
????? wrote:

I can’t believe that even know that the Parthian Battery has a lot of stuff in it to make power, it just makes 1.1 to 2 volts!